This report analyses health spending in 53 countries in the WHO European Region from 2000 to 2018 (the latest year for which internationally comparable data are available). It reviews key patterns and trends in health spending over time and across countries in the following areas:
- health spending before the COVID-19 pandemic;
- the priority given to health in government budgets and the adverse effects of out-of pocket payments on financial protection;
- compulsory health financing arrangements and their impact on progress towards universal health coverage;
- spending on primary health care; and
- the implications of COVID-19 for health spending and the role of public policy in mitigating the negative effects of the pandemic and building health system resilience.